Systemic physiology with a study of organ function and an emphasis on human physiology. The structure and function of the major body systems will be explored including the integumentary, muscular, skeletal, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, urinary, reproductive and body fluids and electrolytes. Aspects of cell structure, organization and physiology and molecular aspects of cell biology will be covered. The students will gain an understanding of normal physiology of the body at the cell and organ level. These basic understandings combined with critical thinking will enable the students to progress through the curriculum with a knowledge and analytical base necessary for understanding pathogenesis, pharmacological treatments and clinical outcomes. Ultimately, the factual material and the critical clinical thinking ability acquired in the case studies and laboratory sessions will provide the basis and rational for selective pharmacotherapy and the understanding of its use in varying disease states.