If France is where the French live, then who are the French? Frequently described as a culturally homogeneous nation, France is in fact one of the most important immigrant receiving countries in Europe. In this course we consider this paradox in an effort to understand the diversity of the country’s make-up as well as the ideologies and institutions that have succeeded, or not, in making others French. Conflicts and controversies of the past 30 years, that include the rise of the extreme right, the problem of the disadvantaged suburbs, the question of Islamic headscarves and more, have in particular pushed these questions to the front of the country’s domestic agenda. Looking historically and across several case studies, we ask both what an anthropological perspective can bring to these questions as well as what the French example can add to our understandings of culture, diversity, and race. Conducted in English.