Surveys the history of commerce: the exchange of goods, services, and ideas for profit concentrating on the early modern beginnings of global trade through contemporary systems of digital exchange within a supposed knowledge economy in the global North. Students investigate the social context of production and sale, including gendered, racially based, and classed forms of labor as well as negotiated conceptions of value and fair exchange and the development of influential national business systems (e.g., the East India Company, Wedgwood, Toyota). This course traces the historical genealogy of fixtures of contemporary business such as capitalism, mass production, labor migration, the notion of “the economy” as a discrete object, banking, debt, intellectual property, marketing, the “start-up,” and the “gig" economy. Class Notes: 5 seats open to upper level students, remaining open to Juniors only until the Open Enrollment period. Enrollment Requirements: Prerequisite: 3 credits of IH1 and 3 credits of IH2, or HMST 220 or HMST 230.