This course will look at the risk factors and vulnerabilities as well as the coping strategies and protective factors found in populations of people who have experenced violence and/or trauma. The history of psychological trauma and the stages of recovery will be examined. Varoius theories from psychology, sociology, criminology and social work will be reviewed in regard to the causes, responses and historical context of violence, trauma and abuse. Several methods of helping people who have experienced violence, trauma, and/or abuse will be presented. Special policy and governmental responsed to the plights of victims will also be covered. Topics will include natral disasters, terroroism, child abuse, domestic violence, and elder absue. Factors such as racism, classism, ethnocentrism and homophobia that contribute to violence, trauma and/or abuse will also be explored. Students coming into this course will be eligible to apply for a Certificate of Completion for the NYS Coursework/Training in the Identification and Reporting of Child Abuse and Maltreatment. Class Notes: HYBRID COURSE.