This course is an introduction to the study of communication through the observation and analysis of empirical (i.e. aspects of the observable world) data. It will stress how to form appropriate questions from the theories (or hunches, dreams etc.) and rigorously test these propositions (quantitatively and qualitatively) to see how well they correspond to the world outside ourselves. An added benefit of the course will be to show how to be a more informed judge of the claims of others. The format of the course is lecture/discussion. Students cannot earn credit for both CMNS 291 and PRAD 291.